When dysfunction occurs in the cranial nerves affecting the eye, pupil, optic nerve, and ocular muscles, impaired vision or eye movements may occur. These eye conditions which are caused by a pathology of the nervous system are called neuro-ophthalmological disorders. These types of disorders usually affect visual acuity, intrinsic motility, extrinsic motility, visual field, etc.
Different types of neurophthalmological disorders
Neuro-ophthalmological disorders affect visual perception and interpretation, movement of the eyes and eye lids, and the optic disc.
Neuro-ophthalmological disorders include:
Diseases of the retina, such as, vascular or degenerative retinopathies.
Optic nerve conditions such as optic neuritis or papillary edema.
Various cerebral lesions of visual perception such as homonymous lateral hemianopia of vascular or tumor origin, visual agnosia of vascular or degenerative origin, etc.
Peripheral or central oculomotor paralysis, including strabismus.
Pupil abnormalities such as mydriasis, Adie’s pupil and meiosis.
Nystagmus (involuntary and jerky movements of the eyes).
Affections of the orbit.
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